Björk, C.R. 2010. Additions to the lichen flora of Washington State, United States. I. Evansia 27: 18-20. [key words: lichens / new lichen reports] [abstract] [request pdf]
Thirteen lichen species are reported new for Washing State: Agonimia tristiculata, Arthonia macounii, Fulgensia subbracteata, Hypocenomyce anthracophila, Lecanora albellula, Lecanora hybocarpa, Leptogium schraderi, Massalongia confusa, and Toninia tristis var. scholanderi. These reports are from seven localities, mostly from the drier, eastern counties. I highlight the need for statewide conservation assessment of these species.
Björk, C.R. 2010. Distribution patterns of disjunct and endemic vascular plants in the interior wetbelt of northwest North America. Botany 88: 409-428. [key words: plants / endemics / Interior Cedar-Hemlock Zone / plant phytogeography] [abstract] [request pdf]
A region of contrastively wetter and milder climate occurs in inland northwest North America, separated from similar climates of the Pacific coast by 200-400 km. Researchers have long noted that numerous vascular plants divide their ranges between the interior wetbelt and coastal and interior wetbelt regions, disjunct by at least 200 km. These disjunct taxa are assigned to north-coast and south-coast lists according to whether the coastal portions of the ranges occur primarily north or south of the southern limits of maximum continental glaciation. A list of interior wetbelt endemic taxa is also presented, focusing on those that occur at forested elevations. Presence/absence for coastal disjunct and endemic taxa were assigned to grid of 1° x 1° latitude-longitude cells. Using this grid, concentrations of disjunct and endemic taxa were detected, and total values per cell were tested in linear regression for a relationship to mean annual precipitation. In total, 116 coastal disjunct taxa were detected, 31 of them north-coastal and 85 south-coastal. Interior wetbelt endemic and subendemic taxa total 95, and of these 46 were found primarily at forested elevations. North-coast taxa were found over a wide latitudinal range both north and south of the glacial limits, and their distribution had a weak positive relationship with annual precipitation. South-coast and endemic taxa were found mostly south of the glacial limits, and their distribution did not correlate to annual precipitation. The greatest concentrations of south-coastal disjunct and endemic taxa occurred in the Clearwater region of north-central Idaho; a region noted by previous researchers to be a likely ice-age refugium for wet-climate dependent plants and animals. Inferences are made from these patterns, both for biogeographical understanding of the roles played by the interior wetbelt and some regions connecting to the coast, as well as for preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem continuity.
Björk, C.R. 2010. Douglasia conservatorum (Primulaceae), a new species from Idaho and Montana, U.S.A. Novon 20: 9-12. [key words: plants / Douglasia / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Douglasia conservatorum Björk is described as a new species from a single population in the Coeur d’Alene Mountains along the Idaho/Montana border in the United States. With other members of the genus, it shares a pink corolla color, branched and stellate trichomes, and pulvinate habit. Within Douglasia Lindl., it is unique in possessing papillae on the leaves, and additionally differs in its combination of traits of leaf shape, flower number, shape of the involucre bracts, and distribution and morphology of trichomes. Its morphology and range suggests that it is related to other temperate-climate Douglasia species, in contrast to all species in the northern, (sub)Arctic center of diversity. A key to Douglasia is presented. Like all other members of the genus, D. conservatorum is endemic to a small geographic range. The ecology and conservation priority of the species are discussed.
Björk, C.R. 2010. Sedum valens (Crassulaceae), a new species from the Salmon River Canyon of Idaho. Madroño 57: 136-140. [key words: plants / Sedum / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Sedum valens (Crassulaceae) is described from the Salmon River Canyon of central Idaho. Though it shares numerous morphological traits with Sedum borschii and S leibergii, the species differs strikingly in having myriad leaves packed into rosettes as wide as 1 dm. The leaves are ciliate, a characteristic otherwise unknown in temperate North American Sedum, except in Sedum radiatum, a high dissimilar species. Further distinguishing characteristics are found in leaf shape, phenology, fruit characteristics and in habitat.
Björk, C.R. and M. Darrach. 2009. An investigation of morphological evidence supports the resurrection of Pyrrocoma scaberula (Asteraceae: Astereae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 3: 231-238. [key words: plants / Pyrrocoma / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Field data were gathered from 31 wild populations of Pyrrocoma liatriformus sensu lato (Asteraceae, Astereae). These are measures of degree of tomentosity and glandularity, number of lateral inflorescence branches, number, length and width of flower heads, width of phyllaries, and width of the lowest leaf of the inflorescence. Principle components analysis and univariate statistics of these characters reveal non-uniformity in the morphology of P. liatriformus sensu lato, with two identifiable morphologies corresponding to geographical range, as divided into the Palouse grasslands on the one hand and grasslands of the Snake River Canyons/Camas Prairie region on the other. The plants of the latter geographical range are represented by the type of Pyrrocoma scaberula, hitherto synonymized under P. liatriformis since the original publication of these names in 1909. The segregation of populations into a resurrected P. scaberula leaves P. liatriformis sensu stricto a much rarer and an even more threatened species. Conservation implications of this taxonomy are discussed.
Björk, C.R. and P. Dunwiddie. 2004. Floristics and distribution of vernal pools on the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington. Rhodora 107: 327-347. [key words: plants / vernal pools] [abstract] [request pdf]
Vernal pools are common on the Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington, where they occur on basalt bedrock within the channels scoured by the Pleistocene Missoula Floods. This is the first extensive floristic survey of these pools. Eighty-five percent of the 283 plant taxa are native, and the majority of these are annual. The Washington vernal pools have strong floristic affinities with their counterparts in California; 34% of the native species and 65% of genera in the Columbia Plateau pools also occur in California vernal pools. The remainder include numerous regional and locally endemic taxa. The total native flora is two thirds that of the California vernal pools, but the average per-pool taxon richness in Washington is greater.
Björk, C.R. and M. Fishbein. 2006. Astragalus asotinensis (Fabaceae), a newly discovered species from Washington and Idaho, United States. Novon 16: 299-303. [key words: plants / Astragalus / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Astralagus asotinensis Björk & Fishbein (Fabaceae) is newly discovered from a single population on limestone of the Limekiln Formation at the mouth of Hells Canyon in Washington and Idaho in the United States. This population of several thousand plants has yet to be found on any of the noncalcareous substrates in the vicinity. Its affinities appear closest to Astragalus sect. Podosclerocarpi A. Gray, which hitherto encompassed three species of the Columbia Basin of British Columbia, Oregon, and Washington, in northwestern North America. Astragalus asotinensis represents a disjunct element of section Podosclerocarpi, the nearest population of which, in the form of A. sclerocarpus A. Gray, occurs 150 km northwest. With species of section Podosclerocarpi, A asotinensis shares a strongly cauline habit, creamy white petals, non-gibbous calyx base, and stipitate, curved fruits. It is unique within section Podosclerocarpi in having sparse pubescence, a much longer ratio of peduncle-to-raceme length (4:1), and an intermediate leaflet length-width ratio (5:1).
Björk, C., T. Goward and T. Spribille. 2009. New records and range extensions of rare lichens from waterfalls and spray zones in inland British Columbia, Canada. Evansia 26: 219-224. [key words: lichens / lichen ecology / rare lichens / Wells Gray Park / new lichen reports] [abstract] [request pdf]
The importance of waterfalls and whitewater for lichen diversity is well known among field lichenologists but seldom has it been documented in the literature. We call attention here to a string of occurrences of eleven regionally rare lichens from waterfalls in inland British Columbia. Pseudocyphellaria mallota is reported as new to British Columbia and Haematomma ochroleucum new to Idaho. Psoroglaena stigonemoides is new to North America.
Bunnell, F.L., T. Goward, I. Houde and C. Björk. 2007. Larch seed trees sustain arboreal lichens and encourage recolonization of regenerating stands. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 22: 94-98. [key words: forest ecology / epiphytic lichens]
Bunnell, F.L., T. Spribille, I. Houde, T. Goward and C. Björk. 2008. Lichens on down wood in logged and unlogged forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 1033-1041. [key words: woody debris / forest ecology / rare lichens] [abstract] [request pdf]
Lichen communities of forests often appear to be negatively affected by timber harvest presumably because of reduction of suitable substrate and increased desiccation. We examined species richness and composition of lichens on woods of logs of the same decay class in unlogged stands. (>140 years old) and logged, 20- to 30-year-old stands. There was no significant difference in species richness or mean lichen cover between logged or unlogged stands, but species composition differed, including species that were unique to either logged or unlogged stands. Crustose lichens accounted for 71% of rare species and all of the species occurring more commonly in unlogged stands; macrolichens accounted for 82% of common species and 60% of the species occurring more commonly in logged stands. Diameter at breast height and decay characteristics of down wood were the best predictors of lichen richness. Among lichen-rich, decay class 3 logs, relatively small amounts of retained down wood sustained lichen richness equivalent to unlogged stands. It appears important to ensure that decay classes favourable to lichens are retained after harvest.
Goward, T. and C. Björk. 2009. Wilf Schofield: a waterfall tribute. Botanical Electronic News 2009. [key words: waterfall spray zones / lichens / lichen ecology / conservation responsibility / people / Wells Gray Park] [download pdf]
Goward, T. and C. Björk. 2010. (“Anonymous”). Status report on the Peacock Vinyl lichen, Leptogium polycarpum, in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. Submitted. (pending – ONLINE) [key words: lichens / rare lichens / Leptogium / conservation responsibility]
Goward, T. and C. Björk. 2010. Macrolichens of British Columbia: checklist and conservation ranks. Enlichened Consulting Ltd./British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. [key words: lichens / rare lichens / lichen checklists] [download pdf]
Goward, T. and C. Björk. 2011. Checklist of macrolichens and mesolichens of Wells Gray Park and vicinity, British Columbia. Enlichened Consulting Ltd. [key words: lichens / lichen checklists / Wells Gray Park] [download pdf]
Reveal, J.L. and C.R. Björk. 2004. Eriogonum soliceps (Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae), a new species from east-central Idaho and southwestern Montana. Brittonia 56: 295-298. [key words: plants / Eriogonum / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Eriogonum soliceps, a new species of subg. Eucylca sect. Capitata, is described. It may be readily distinguished from all other taxa of the subgenus by its reduced inflorescence. From its presumed nearest relative, E. macum, this new species differs in its solitary (vs. 2-5) involucre, presence of a peduncle but no scape, lack of bracts at the base of the involucre, and distinctly pustulose midribs of the mature flowers.
Smith, J.F., D.N. Perkins, C.R. Björk and G. Glenne. 2010. Species boundaries in Pyrrocoma liatriformis and P. scaberula (Asteraceae) based on AFLP data. Madroño 57: 95-105. [key words: plants / Pyrrocoma / new plant species] [abstract] [request pdf]
Previous investigations into the morphology of Pyrrocoma liatriformis sensu lato in northern Idaho and adjacent Washington have revealed two distinct morphologies that correspond to their geographical ranges. These same populations and individuals have been analyzed using AFLP data. Over 400 loci were identified among all individuals using two sets of AFLP adaptors/ The data are in agreement with the morphological data and separate the populations from the Snake River Canyon/ Camas Prairie from those of the Palouse grasslands. Data clustering methodologies using both presence/absence data for all individuals an allele frequencies for each population produced similar results. We suggest the name P. scaberula be resurrected to encompass the populations from the Snake River Canyon and Camas Prairie.
Sparrius, L.B. and C.R. Björk. 2008. Enterographa oregonensis, a new foliicolous species from the northwest coast of North America. The Bryologist 111: 487-489. [key words: lichens / new lichen taxa] [abstract] [request pdf]
A new foliicolous lichen species, Enterographa oregonensis (Ascomycota: Arthoniales: Roccellaceae) is described from temperate coastal North America. It differs from similar, tropical species in its combination of 5(17)-septate spores, a gelatinous perispore, short lirellae and presence of gyrophoric acid. The ecology of this species is discussed and a conservation assessment is recommended.
Spribille, T. and C.R. Björk. 2008. New records and range extensions in the North American lignicolous lichen flora. Mycotaxon 105: 455-468. [key words: lichens / new lichen reports] [abstract] [request pdf]
Based on recent intensive studies of wood-dwelling lichens especially in western North America, we report a series of new records and range extensions. Six species are reported as new to North America: Arthonia ligniariella, Elixia flexella, Gyalideopsis hevetica, Lecidea scabridula, Lecidea symmictella and Xyloschistes platytropa. Chaenothecopsis nigra is again confirmed for North America. Buellia arborea, B. chloroleuca, Catillaria erysiboides, and Lignoscripta atroalba are new to Canada and Lecidea pullata and Xylographa trunciseda are new to eastern North America. We also provide range extensions for all four species of Pycnora known from North America. In all we include new records from Alaska, Arizona, British Columbia, Colorado, Idaho, Manitoba, Montana, New Brunswick. Newfoundland, North Dakota, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Québec, Washington and the Yukon.
Spribille, T., C.R. Björk, S. Ekman, J.A. Elix, T. Goward, C. Printzen, T. Tønsberg and T. Wheeler. 2009. Contributions to an epiphytic lichen flora of northwest North America: I. Eight new species from British Columbia’s inland rainforests. The Bryologist 112: 109-137. [key words: lichens / lichen checklists / Inland Rainforests / Interior Cedar-Hemlock Zone / conservation responsibility / new lichen taxa] [abstract] [request pdf]
Recent surveys of the inland rain forests of British Columbia and adjacent regions have brought to light an unexpectedly rich epiphytic lichen flora, including several species apparently new to science. In the first of a series of papers, we describe eight species discovered during these surveys as new: Absconditella amabilis T. Sprib. (Ostropales), Bacidina contecta S. Ekman & T. Sprib., Biatora aureolepra T. Sprib. & Tønsberg, Biatora ligni-mollis T. Sprib. & Printzen (all Lecanorales), Collema coniophilum Goward (Peltigerales), Pertusaria diluta C. Björk, G. Thor & T. Wheeler (Pertusariales), Schaereria brunnea C. Björk, T. Sprib. & T. Wheeler (Ostropomycetidae incertae sedis) and Scoliciosporum abietinum T. Sprib. (Lecanorales). We also call attention to a ninth species, Bacidina sp. A, a poorly known and possibly undescribed colonizer of moribund cyanolichens. A majority of the above species appear to be confined to old-growth forests, while two (Biatora ligni-mollis and Schaereria brunnea) are currently known only from “antique” forests older than about 500 years. Many additional undescribed epiphytic lichens are known from inland rain forests, underscoring the need for further baseline biodiversity research in light of its ongoing disappearance as a result of resource extraction. In addition to the eight new species, we report Absconditella celata as new to North America, Absconditella lignicola as new to Canada and Montana, Bacidina chloroticula as new to British Columbia and Gyalideopsis piceicola as new to Montana.
Spribille, T., G. Thor, T. Goward and C. Björk. 2008. Lichens on dead wood: species-substrate relationships in the epiphyte lichen floras of the Pacific Northwest and Fennoscandia. Ecography 31: 741-750. [key words: lichen ecology / forest ecology / woody debris / conservation responsibility / lichens] [abstract] [request pdf]
Dead wood is an important habitat feature for lichens in forest ecosystems, but little is known about how many and which lichens are dependent on dead wood. We reviewed substrate use by epiphytic lichens in the combined floras of Fennoscandia and the Pacific Northwest of North America based on literature and herbarium data and analyzed substrate affinity relative to life form, reproductive mode and major phylogenetic group within the floras. A total of 550 (43%) of the 1271 epiphytic species in the combined floras use wood, and 132 species (10%) are obligately associated with dead wood in one or both regions. Obligate and facultative wood-dwelling guilds in the two floras were strongly similar in terms of internal guild structure in each region, but differ somewhat in species composition, while the bark-dwelling guild differs strongly in both. Most obligate dead wood users are sexually reproducing crustose lichens. The largest numbers of species are associated with forest structural features such as logs and snags that have been greatly reduced by forest practices. Conservation of lichens inhabiting wood requires greater attention to crustose lichen species and the development of conservation strategies that look beyond numbers and volumes of dead wood and consider biologically meaningful dead wood structure types.